Tuesday, September 7, 2010

The Atomic Cake Controversy of 1946



 

THE PARTY AND THE SERMON

The celebratory event took place on Tuesday evening, November 5, 1946 at the Officers’ Club of the Army War College in Washington, D.C. The occasion was to mark the disbanding of Joint Army-Navy Task Force Number One, the body that organized and oversaw the first post-war atomic tests in the Pacific. These highly publicized detonations on Bikini Atoll are remembered today, if at all, for displacing an entire indigenous population of islanders, for inspiring a revealing line of swimwear for women and for unleashing the myth that movie star Rita Hayworth’s image was once affixed to an A-bomb.

The Operation Crossroads tests were the biggest media story of 1946, so it was only fitting that the dissolution of the team that produced the show would spark one final media storm. The entire function would have occurred without notice had it not been for the presence of a photographer from the prestigious Harris & Ewing Studio.[1] What triggered the controversy was a picture that the commander of the Task Force, Vice Admiral William H.P. Blandy, and his wife posed for with Rear Admiral Frank J. Lowry. In it, the so-called “Atomic Admiral” is seen cutting into an elaborately engineered “mushroom cloud”-topped cake (with token assistance from Mrs. Blandy) while Lowry looks on with a smile. The unusual pastry was there in the first place because of an order to an East St. Louis, Illinois bakery by Lieutenant John T. Holloway, a member of Blandy’s staff. “It was strictly a business request,” said Eugene Kuehn to the Associated Press at the time. Kuehn, with the help of a bakery supply salesman named L.Y. Stephens, designed the strange looking dessert and had it delivered by car to Washington.[2]


On November 7, 1946 the bizarre photograph was published as the centerpiece of the Washington Post’s society column under the headline “Salute to Bikini.” It was accompanied by other shots of military men gaily hobnobbing with women dressed to the nines. The grotesque inappropriateness of the party as captured by the Post quickly caught the attention of a local Unitarian minister named Arthur Powell Davies. Three days later, on Sunday, November 10th, the outspoken pastor uncorked his outrage over the insensitive revelry and delivered a blistering broadside from his pulpit at the All Souls Church:
I have with me here in the pulpit this morning a page from a newspaper. From a very fine newspaper. It contains a picture—as it seems to me, an utterly loathsome picture. If I spoke as I feel I would call it obscene. I do not blame the newspaper for printing the picture, or the photographer for taking it. What fills me with bitterness is the fact that such an event could take place at all. It is a picture of two high naval officers and a very beautiful lady.[3] They are in the act of cutting what is called an atom-bomb cake. And it is indeed a cake shaped in the form of an atomic explosion. The caption [in the Post’s photo] says it is made of angel food puffs. I do not know how to tell you what I feel about that picture. I only hope to God it is not printed in Russia—to confirm everything the Soviet government is telling the Russian people about how ‘American degenerates’ are able to treat with levity the most cruel, pitiless, revolting instrument of death ever invented by man… The naval officers concerned should apologize to the armed service of which they are a part, and to the American people. No apology would be sufficient to efface what it may mean to the people of the world.[4]
THE REACTION


News of Davies’s sermon—officially entitled Lest the Living Forget—made Time magazine and headlines around the world. His remarks apparently gave voice to the disgust that many people had been feeling over America’s exuberant embrace of all things atomic since August 6, 1945. Despite the reverend’s professed hope, the hubbub over what became known as the “Atomic Cake” even made its way to Moscow:

Soviet Papers Comment on ‘Atom’ Cake
Moscow, Nov. 17 (AP)—Two Soviet newspapers took cognizance today of the recent serving at an American officers’ club of a cake shaped like an atom bomb explosion and one commented that American “atomists” would “like to stew a big atomic kasha and make millions of peaceful people bear the consequences.”
The reference to kasha, a Russian cereal, was by the government newspaper Izvestia, which illustrated its story by a picture of a portly gentleman in a morning coat cutting a cake. Trud, the trade union newspaper, was the other newspaper that referred to the “atomic cake.”[5]


In America, the sermon and the resulting news coverage prompted letters to the editor (some with the motive of defending the Admiral). The following is a sampling:
A note on that delightful picture of Admirals Blandy and Lowry and attached dimpling woman all preparing to eat the charming and oh-so-divine “atom bomb” cake. On Armistice Day I was thinking of so many charming variations of this theme. We could have darling little cakes made in the shape of coffins, and the cutest little crosses pressed of angel-puffs. And a few drops of cherry extract could be—you guessed it—drops of blood.
History will not scorn us for our last-resort use of this most horrible of all weapons to end finally and completely the most terrible of all wars. But we will be damned as barbarians without vision or heart if we do not feel the deepest sadness at the necessity for authorizing such cruelness. And let no one toss such conscience pangs aside with easy thoughts about legitimate ends. Hitler ravished a continent because, having committed himself to “good ends,” he could tolerate any means.
I think the entire episode was a monument to poor taste, and The Post shares the guilt by printing such obscenities. 
EX-INFANTRYMAN, Arlington, Va.[6]

The recent picture of Admiral and Mrs. Blandy and Admiral Lowry cutting a cake made in the form of an atomic underwater explosion gave wide publicity to the unusual views of the Rev. A. Powell Davies, Unitarian pastor of a “fashionable Washington church.” As published, with accompanying errors of text, it did a great injustice to Admirals Blandy and Lowry, who have been tireless in their efforts to tell the citizens of the world of the devastating power and insidious poison of the atomic bomb.
For example, in October Admiral Blandy, at the New York Herald Tribune Forum and over a national radio network, said: “It is my earnest hope that all nations of the world join America in a straightforward march along the path leading to elimination of atomic weapons by an effective international control of atomic energy which will guarantee its development for exclusively peaceful purposes.”
Mr. Davies’ remarks also did a great injustice to Mrs. Blandy, who was brought up and married and whose children were christened in the same church of which Mr. Davies has but recently become the pastor.
Admiral and Mrs. Blandy were not the hosts (as stated in published accounts), but were the guests of honor at a party given by officers of the Crossroads staff. They had no part in the planning or procurement of the cake. The Post requested and was accorded the privilege of sending a news photographer to the party, and the picture was taken at the request of the photographer. In acceding to the request, Admiral and Mrs. Blandy and Admiral Lowry were acting as would any lady and gentleman.
To be publicly pilloried from the pulpit for this seems to be a strange reflection of the principles of Him who founded the Christian church.
DAVID H. BLAKELOCK, Colonel, United States Army; FITZHUGH LEE, Captain, Joint Task Force 1, Washington[7]
Sirs:
The recent picture of Admiral and Mrs. Blandy and Admiral Lowry cutting a cake made in the form of an atomic underwater explosion [TIME, Nov. 18] gave wide publicity to the unusual views of the Rev. A. Powell Davies, Unitarian pastor of a "fashionable Washington church." As published ... it did a great injustice to Admirals Blandy and Lowry, who have been tireless in their efforts to tell the citizens of the world of the devastating power and insidious poison of the atomic bomb. . . .
Admiral and Mrs. Blandy and Admiral Lowry were not the hosts but were the guests of honor at a party given by Officers of the Crossroads staff. They had no part in the planning or procurement of the cake.
DAVID H. BLAKELOCK Colonel, U.S.A. FITZHUGH LEE Captain, U.S.N. Washington[8]
Sirs:
. . . Utter astonishment could not describe my feelings when I read the tirade let loose by a Washington minister at two men who contributed such a large part in the defeat of our enemies. He would "damn to hell" these men; he would call down the wrath of God on these men were he a medieval priest; he would put in torment their souls for their base, utter disregard of all the principles of humanity. . . . Who is he? This minister might just as well damn every Air Corps officer, every bombardier, every flame-throwing private, every machine gunner and every rifleman to everlasting hell for using a weapon as destructive as the one he carried in defense of his country. . . .
Personally, it is my belief, and I am sure the belief of the majority of servicemen, that the atomic bomb accomplished at the proper moment a complete demoralization of the Japanese and led to ultimate surrender, thus saving the lives of hundreds of thousands of American men who would otherwise have been lost. God grant that we might have had this bomb at the start of the conflict. God grant that this nation have such a weapon as this if & when our enemies feel the time is ripe to strike another blow at Freedom and mankind. . . .
J. N. TALBOTT
Lieutenant Commander, U.S.N.R. Philadelphia[9]
Davies’s local brethren of the cloth sought to minimize their colleague’s position while at the same time getting their own names in the papers. Reverend J. Warren Hastings of the National Christian Church of Washington, D.C. told the Associated Press: “If we can only learn to go no further with the atomic bomb than making the likeness of its explosion into a cake we shall be all right.” Reverend Peter Marshall of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church, also in D.C., remarked to the same reporter: “I don’t see anything loathsome about it at all.”[10]

The two central players in the sermon clearly just wanted to move on—albeit without the apology demanded of them by the minister. Blandy stated that he did not want “to comment offhand” and Lowry told a reporter that the pastor “probably just doesn’t understand the situation.”[11] For his part, L.Y. Stephens, the man who assisted in the creation of the now famous dessert, did not subscribe to the negative symbolism assigned to his handiwork by Reverend Davies. He told the Associated Press that the sermon was “silly” and that “We intended the cake as something to eat.”[12]

Meanwhile, other, more important people were taking note of the confectionary brouhaha and—behind the scenes—they were siding with Davies’s point of view. On November 11, 1946, the influential columnist Walter Lippmann wrote to the Secretary of the Navy, James V. Forrestal to voice his concern:

3525 Woodley Road, N.W.
Washington 16, D.C.
November 11, 1946
Dear Jim:
The outburst of Reverend A.P. Davies about the atomic bomb cake is, I feel sure, a sign of the times, which I feel should not be ignored.
Public relations officers of both the War and Navy Departments have been out of hand for some time, and I have detected for some months a growing undercurrent of feeling that will affect the whole military establishment if something isn’t done about it.
I have compiled a list of new and terrifying weapons announced by the War and Navy Departments, and of other stories originating there which are boastful or threatening. The total effect was bound to produce a popular reaction, and I really feel that you and Bob Patterson ought to look very seriously into this business.
You are going to have a very hard time with the next Congress getting appropriations, and if the large church-going population of this country with its pacifist leanings gets the idea that the Services are out of hand, it will have a bad effect in the fight for adequate appropriations.
I am sure you appreciate the spirit in which I am writing this.

Yours.
Walter Lippmann
Honorable James V. Forrestal
Secretary of the Navy
Washington 25, D.C.

Forrestal, who was of the same mind as Lippmann, wrote him back the next day:


12 November 1946
Dear Walter:
Your letter of yesterday:
I am in complete agreement. So is [Secretary of War] Bob Patterson with whom I have just talked. We are both acting accordingly. As a matter of fact I had started something in this direction about ten days ago but at that time it was on the thesis that people were becoming bored with such adolescent competitive publicity. I think your point if of deeper importance.
Vice Admiral Felix Johnson, who is now in charge of the general policy of Public Relations, is a most intelligent man and some day I will ask you to come over and talk with him.
Sincerely yours,
James Forrestal
Walter Lippmann, Esq.,
3525 Woodley Road N.W.,
Washington 16, D.C.[13]
The impact that Forrestal and his P.R. team had on subsequent matters involving atomic testing appears to be limited to their success in preventing a recurrence of embarrassing celebratory parties. And Lippmann, the writer frequently co-credited with the coining of the term “Cold War,” evidently steered clear of the issue in his columns from this period.[14] But even if the efforts of these two powerful men remained largely confined to their archives, something more public was about to happen…

THE HIROSHIMA DRAWINGS


The most significant result of Davies’s “outburst,” as Lippmann called it, was that reports of his anger reached the eyes of Dr. Howard Bell, an official in General Douglas MacArthur’s provisional government in Japan. Bell, a kindred spirit, wrote to Davies and playfully admonished him for not using stronger language in expressing his indignation, but conceded that the minister “had to make some concessions to the proprieties of pulpit utterance.” He went on in his letter to describe the hardship of Japanese school children—particularly in Hiroshima—and suggested that American school children should clean out their desks and send spare school supplies like pencils and notebooks to their Japanese counterparts.

Reverend Davies took Dr. Bell’s idea to heart and on February 13, 1947 he delivered a sermon entitled “In Reply to a Letter from Japan” asking his flock for action. In the period that followed, the youngest parishioners of the church collected over a half ton of paper, pencils, crayons, erasers, paste and other items. The material was then shipped to Japan where it arrived in December of 1947—just in time for Christmas. The supplies were distributed to two schools and an orphanage.

The recipients of this remarkable gift from American schoolchildren responded with immense gratitude. The most touching and enduring gift that the U.S. students received for their efforts were crayon drawings and watercolor paintings from the youthful artists at the Honkawa Elementary School in Hiroshima. The art work depicted many different scenes from the home country and themes such as “Friends of America” and “Peace – Japan.” After the “Hiroshima Drawings” went on a nationwide tour sponsored by the U.S. government, they were returned to the All Souls Church and, over time, seemingly lost.[15]

According to a forthcoming documentary, the art work was rediscovered in 1996 in a box in the home of a parishioner of the All Souls Church. The nearly fifty drawings and paintings were then moved to the church’s vault where they would periodically be displayed for visiting Hibakusha (atom bomb survivors). In 2007, the pictures were restored and sent back to their place of origin—the Honkawa Elementary School—for exhibition.[16] What had started out as a trivialized media story about an “atomic cake,” had, in the end, led to a lasting expression of peace.

PASSINGS


Reverend Davies died of hemorrhaging from a blood clot in one of his lungs while he was working in his study at the church’s parsonage on September 26, 1957. He was 55 years old. The memorial service held at All Souls Church two days later was attended by three sitting Supreme Court Justices—Hugo Black, Harold Burton and William O. Douglas. According to the Washington Post, Davies was cremated.[17]

William Blandy, the primary target of the minister’s wrath in 1946, had died several years earlier, in 1954, at the age of 63.[18] His legacy is a U.S. Navy ship named for him, a plot at Arlington National Cemetery and, most prominently, a ridiculous photograph.


[1] The infamous photograph of Blandy and the “atomic cake” is credited to “Harris & Ewing” (a prominent Washington, D.C. studio that is now defunct—for an excellent history, read this Washing ton Business Journal article) on the November 8, 1946 Washington Post society page (page 18) on which it appears. On the same page (but smaller), there are other uncredited photographs from the event that were presumably taken by a staff photographer. In a letter to the editor of the Washington Post published on November 22, 1946, Colonel David H. Blakelock, U.S. Army, and Captain Fitzhugh Lee, Joint Task Force 1, state that the Post requested permission from the party’s organizers to send a photographer. It is not clear whether the photographer from Harris & Ewing was working under contract to the Post, but given the presence of the other staff photographer, it is more likely that the Post’s editors caught wind of the exquisitely posed ‘cake’ photo and licensed it for publication.

[2] “Cake Shaped Like Atomic Blast Draws Pastor’s Wrath,” Rhinelander (Wisconsin) Daily News, November 11, 1946.

[3] The woman Davies is referring to is Vice Admiral Blandy’s wife.

[4] George N. Marshall, A. Powell Davies and His Times [Boston: Skinner House Books, 1990] pp. 139-140. To read a transcript of the complete sermon, see the Atomic Cake Sermon blog post on CONELRAD Adjacent.

[5] “Soviet Papers Comment on ‘Atom’ Cake,” Washington Post, via the Associated Press, November 18, 1946.

[6] Letter to the editor, Washington Post, November 13, 1946.

[7] Letter to the editor, Washington Post, November 22, 1946. Note: Blakelock and Fitzhugh, who had a professional motive to shield Blandy and Lowry from criticism, conveniently omit in their letter the fact that the East Saint Louis, Illinois baker, Eugene Kuehn, had already told the Associated Press that the order for the cake came from a member of Blandy’s staff (see paragraph two of main CONELRAD story above).

[8] Letter to the editor, Time magazine, December 9, 1946 and see preceding footnote for additional comment. Note: The letter that appeared in Time was a truncated version of the letter that appeared earlier in the Washington Post by the same authors.

[9] Time, December 9, 1946.

[10] “Capital Clergy Split on ‘Loathsome’ Atom Cake,” Syracuse (New York) Herald-Journal, November 11, 1946.

[11] “Picture of Atomic-Bomb Cake ‘Obscene,’ D.C. Pastor Declares,” Washington Post, via Associated Press, November 11, 1946.

[12] “Cake Shaped Like Atomic Blast Draws Pastor’s Wrath,” Rhinelander (Wisconsin) Daily News, November 11, 1946.

[13] Yale University
Walter Lippmannn Papers
Lippmannn-Forrestal Correspondence
November 11, 1946—November 12, 1946
Box 71, Section 3, Folder 794

[14] According to The Cold War Encyclopedia by Thomas Parrish [New York: Henry Holt] pp. 68-69, the post-World War II usage of the term “Cold War” is traced back to a newspaper writer named Herbert Bayard Swope who included the phrase in a speech that he wrote for the prominent businessman and political adviser, Bernard Baruch. Baruch delivered the speech to the legislature of his home state of South Carolina on April 17, 1947. It was Lippmannn, however, who popularized the term in a series of articles and a 1947 book entitled The Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy [New York: Harper]. CONELRAD was unable to locate Lippmannn columns from this period that address the “Atomic Cake” issue.

[15] Initial history of “Hiroshima Drawings” derived from A. Powell Davies.org accessed on September 7, 2010.

Note: At least one other art exhibit by Hiroshima school children was staged in the United States. According to a brief item in the June 28, 1953 Albuquerque (New Mexico) Journal there was a display of 75 paintings by Hiroshima children at the Fine Arts Gallery at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. The exhibit was part of an art exchange with Santa Fe, NM school children whose work was displayed in Hiroshima.

[16] “Pictures From a Hiroshima School” documentary website accessed on September 7, 2010.

[17] Details on Davies’s death derived from his biography on the Unitarian Universalist Historical Society webpage accessed on September 7, 2010. Additional details derived from September 27, 1957 Washington Post article, “Dr. A. Powell Davies Dies in His Study Here.”

[18] “Atom Expert Dies,” Washington Post, via Associated Press, January 13, 1954. Note: Blandy died from complications of a stroke.

82 comments:

Russell B said...

This is what makes the internet so great. A couple inadvertent, work-avoiding mouse clicks and 20 minutes later, and what a nice way to spend a coffee break. Well done.

Theo said...

There's a display on the great cake debate at the Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, along with plenty of other nuclear age detritus.

The Hiroshima drawings weren't tied in, so that's interesting.

Nochalbestiny said...

I like cake

Marfil said...

Indeed, what a great post! I'm really glad to have found your blog.

M. R. Bober said...

The late John "Jack" Holloway, CAPT, USNR, was my friend and neighbor for many years. He told me the story about the cake shortly before he died. As he related the events, he--as a junior officer/scientist on the Task Force--had been charged with obtaining dessert for the banquet. He had a very small budget. The cake baker was well known in St. Louis for his creative cakes.
The proposed cake was much more expensive than the budget allowed, but the baker hoping for more than local fame, cut his price from about $300 to $50 (the budgeted amount) including delivery.
Jack was stunned by the negative publicity and went "hat in hand" to apologize to ADM Blandy for the embarrassment. Blandy's Chief of Staff, a Navy Captain told Holloway that the Admiral's reaction to the fuss was "it was a very good picture of Mrs. Blandy."
Holloway was an accomplished man, Naval Officer, Nuclear Physicist w/ PhD, and once the youngest member of the Cosmos Club.
I miss him and respect his memory.

Unknown said...

It could have been worse. There was a third stage planned for the cake, but instead she wore it on her head.

Unknown said...

Nice post!! Thanks for sharing.

Dermology anti aging Serum
dermology anti aging cream
Dermology
dermology hair removal cream
dermology hair removal cream
dermology hair removal cream
dermology cellulite cream
Xtreme No
Xtremeno
hgh energizer

blith said...

Thank you! Good scholarship!

USAn said...

Thank-you for this excellent journalism from the tail end of that brief golden age of blogging - now becoming very rare as it is drowned out by the utterly mindless babble and commercial crap of Mr. Zuckerberg's monstrous invention. Historians like you in the future - if we have a future - will view Zuckerberg's invention as at least as destructive in it's own way as Dr. Oppenheimer's is.

lisysomna said...

Mesmerized article written on this blog with other relevant information. It is straight to the point that how we can improve our skills as well as how we can be represented to a new stream of professionalism.Agile Project Management

Unknown said...

creativity of writer is purely impressive. It has touched to the level of expertise with his writing. Everything is up to the mark. Written perfectly and I can use such information for my coming assignment.
วิเคราะห์ปัจจัยพื้นฐาน

Unknown said...

Surprising background experienced in everything sentence of this article. I made a decent attempt to get hint about how I could demonstrate substance of this blog. I must say, not much powerful but rather I surrendered every one of my weapons soon after understanding it.
ส่วนลด macbook

Unknown said...

It verbalizes a limitless imagination. I am totally impressed with the factual transformation skill of author used for transforming his thoughts and presented here. Impressed with deep meaning of this article.
โปร บิ๊กซี

Unknown said...

Now day, everything is going to find a new but well settled and successful stream for their career. When I came to this blog, I really impressed by all the knowledge points mentioned here. Thank you for this assistance.
ออกแบบฉลากสินค้า

farnandazax said...

The site is really beneficial for everyone to know about this topic. I think if you read blog than you will get some more information from blog. This is really useful blog.
รับทำเสื้อโปโล

farnandazax said...

I constantly like to read a top quality content having accurate info pertaining to the subject and the exact same thing I found in this article. Nice job.
Dell PowerEdge T630

Unknown said...

Fantastic post, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists of this sector do not notice this. You must continue your writing. I'm confident, you have a great readers' base already!loopbaancoach amsterdam

jgg said...

Somewhere the content of the blog surrounded by little arguments. Yes it is healthy for readers. They can include this kind of language in their writing skill as well as while group discussion in college.tantra amsterdam

jgg said...

Obviously, the collection of a writer must be a bundle of creativity. New ideas of writing become the reason of success. It makes your work worthwhile. Everyone wants to praise your writing because they bound by creativity.Helderziende amsterdam

jgg said...

Remarkable experience earned after reading all the points of this website. I tried hard to get clue about how I could prove content of its blogs not much effective but I surrendered all my weapons just after reading it.Healer amsterdam

Unknown said...

It become an attractive part of a blog when author uses indirect speech while writing a blog. It shows your creative mind as well as make your written essay different from others.rouwverwerking amsterdam

Unknown said...

This blog resolved all my queries I had in my mind. Really helpful and supportive subject matter written in all the points. Hard to find such kind of blogs as descriptive and accountable to your doubts.Meditatie amsterdam

Unknown said...

Enthusiastic beginning is very common in every sector when anyone enters into a new world. But it is very hard to keep such enthusiasm for a long time after huddles come out from invited sources. Read this blog and know more about this topic.Mediteren amsterdam

Unknown said...

Here in this blog, words themselves are creating that scenario where there is a lot of mayhem and serendipity along with a silent isolation. Rarely found to see such skill and enthusiasm.Pedicure assendelft

Unknown said...

Sometime few educational blogs become very helpful while getting relevant and new information related to your targeted area. As I found this blog and appreciate the information delivered to my database.bioresonantie eindhoven

Unknown said...

I welcome all the suggestion mentioned in this blog related to new learning skills. It is definitely going to help me to adopt new exited way of learning. I think, others will also feel helpful this blog for their needs.bioresonantie arnhem

Unknown said...

Share great information about your blog , Blog really helpful for us . We read your blog , share most useful information in blog . Thanks for share your blog here .administratiekantoren amsterdam

Unknown said...

I enjoyed reading this blog. in my opinion, everything was perfectly written there as well as few small tips are also can be taken as healthy suggestion. Descriptive informative content written in this blog is very useful.belastingconsulent amsterdam

Unknown said...

Most of educational information over different kinds of blogs do not such supportive as supportive all the points of this blog. You need not to find any other platform to verify the data stated here.bioresonantie haarlem

Unknown said...

Mesmerized article written on this blog with other relevant information. It is straight to the point that how we can improve our skills as well as how we can be represented to a new stream of professionalism.loopbaanadvies amsterdam

jgg said...

It is really a helpful blog to find some different source to add my knowledge. I came into aware of new professional blog and I am impressed with suggestions of author. reconnective healing amsterdam

jgg said...

I enjoyed reading this blog. in my opinion, everything was perfectly written there as well as few small tips are also can be taken as healthy suggestion. Descriptive informative content written in this blog is very useful. psychotherapeut haarlem

jgg said...

It verbalizes a limitless imagination. I am totally impressed with the factual transformation skill of author used for transforming his thoughts and presented here. Impressed with deep meaning of this article. therapeut haarlem

jgg said...

This blog resolved all my queries I had in my mind. Really helpful and supportive subject matter written in all the points. Hard to find such kind of blogs as descriptive and accountable to your doubts. zwangerschapsmassage haarlem

Unknown said...

Common bribes ineluctables homogeneous level to do something. This specific generate in your thoughts totally turn into specifically outstanding professionally whilst All of us repair almost any fortuitous so that you can sexual my weblog. Vainglorious! Blesss for your inhales, its been also beneficial. Unveils type intended for speaking about ones information.
code ส่วนลด Shopat24

lettyharry said...

Wow! This is the perfect blog I am looking this type of blog its awesome blog here , share great information about this topic. This informative blog helps many readers with their decision-making regarding the situation. Great articles and will look forward for more!
สกุลเงินดิจิทัล

mrkdvsn said...


Share great information about your blog , Blog really helpful for us . We read your blog , share most useful information in blog . Thanks for share your blog here .
Breast enhancement cream

mrkdvsn said...

I enjoyed reading this blog. in my opinion, everything was perfectly written there as well as few small tips are also can be taken as healthy suggestion. Descriptive informative content written in this blog is very useful.
หมูสามชั้น

mrkdvsn said...

This blog is really helpful for my database. It enhanced the area of my thoughts and pushed me beyond the boundaries. Work ethic of every point is different and represent a new way to improve myself.
School Pictures Abu Dhabi

Markdecosta said...

I am glad that I saw this post. It is informative blog for us and we need this type of blog thanks for share this blog, Keep posting such instructional blogs and I am looking forward for your future posts.massage amsterdam

Markdecosta said...

It become an attractive part of a blog when author uses indirect speech while writing a blog. It shows your creative mind as well as make your written essay different from others.waarzegger

mrkdvsn said...

I found this blog after a long time which is really helpful to let understand different approaches. I am going to adopt these new point to my career and thankful for this help.bioresonantie apeldoorn

blog said...

ดัชนีหุ้นโลก,สัมมนาออนไลน์,หาเงินออนไลน์,รวยหุ้น,mt4,dow jones index,แปลงค่าเงิน us,forex คือ,แปลค่าเงิน,เทรดหุ้น,เปิดบัญชี,spread,ทีเร็กซ์,โบรกเกอร์ forex,โบนัส,แปลงค่าเงิน usd,สัมมนาฟรี,ค่าเงิน us วันนี้,ทดลอง,bonus,leverage คือ,dowjone index,mt5


forex
ฟอเร็กซ์
ระบบเทรด forex
วิเคราะห์ทอง
ราคาน้ํามันพรุ่งนี้

mrkdvsn said...

I constantly like to read a top quality content having accurate info pertaining to the subject and the exact same thing I found in this article. Nice job.bioresonantie haren

Mira said...

Thank you for sharing such great information.
It has help me in finding out more detail about photo cake

Will smith said...

I am completely inspired with the accurate change aptitude of creator utilized for changing his contemplations and exhibited here. Inspired with profound importance of this article. School Portraits Abu Dhabi

maxwellglenn353 said...

not anything to fear about for your writing assignments due to the fact Trent affiliation dot net is available to help you on line to your any sort of essay writing help. they may be very expert and i've used their service in component fortuitously. modbsolutions

Saugnapf said...

There is a better picture from the "Mushroom-Cake to eat" - Posing available. Look here in the german wikipedia: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Crossroads#/media/Datei:Admiral_Blandy_Mushroom_Cloud_Cake.jpg

mrkdvsn said...

This blog is truly useful to convey overhauled instructive undertakings over web which is truly examination. I discovered one fruitful case of this truth through this blog. I will utilize such data now.bioresonantie haarlem

Kristen Brown said...

This is not obligatory that you select out high-quality a constrained vicinity like college or college or your location to make bigger your writing artwork. You need to go browsing to spread your competencies to loads of latest parents which can be genuinely in need of such type of potential. Wedding photography Packages

essaybishop said...

Fantastic post, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists of this sector do not notice this. You must continue your writing. I'm confident, you have a great readers' base already!zwangerschapsmassage haarlem

Rohini Shetty said...

Wow! nice history
nice to read this article...
send rakhi gifts online
online rakhi gifts

Rohini Shetty said...

I have a website where you can buy & send products, gifts online to India & Worldwide.
Especially this year rakhi to your long-distance brother.
Check this out
send rakhi online
rakhi gifts online
know more about us

essaybishop said...

creativity of writer is purely impressive. It has touched to the level of expertise with his writing. Everything is up to the mark. Written perfectly and I can use such information for my coming assignment.bioresonantie haarlem

Saugnapf said...

Where ist the admin here ? Could'nt you remove this spam from above, please ?
I just want to drop the better link for the "atomic cake" to find the picture faster. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Admiral_Blandy_Mushroom_Cloud_Cake.jpg

Rohini Shetty said...

Thanx for sharing, I like cakes...
If you want to send gifts worldwide with free shipping
know more
get here
rakhi gifts online

Unknow said...

Forex (also known as foreign exchange, currency trading or FX) is a global trading network of buyers and sellers – home to individuals, companies, financial institutes and central banks – trading with each other through the conversions of international currencies. In essence, if you’ve ever jetted off abroad and converted your currency, you’ve already partaken in a type of forex trading.

Forex คืออะไร

Unknow said...

The foreign exchange market is also decentralized. There are no dominant exchanges, except in futures trading. Instead, there is a global network of brokers and traders, linked by technology. Participants in the market include banks, corporations, investment management firms, hedge funds, retail investors and central banks.4

drawdown คืออะไร

Unknow said...


The forex broker operates as a middleman between you and the market. In other words, in order to find a buyer or a seller of currencies, you can go to a broker and they match you up with either a respective seller or a respective buyer.


โบรกเกอร์ ไม่มีค่าธรรมเนียม

Unknow said...

Here we will be dealing with economic factors. The factors in place are issued by government regulators and agencies within specific time periods. Some will have a stronger influence on the markets and longer-lasting (for example interest rates), others will have weaker and shorter lasting effects.

In the screenshots below we can see two examples of “Economic (fundamental) Calendars”. You can find many such calendars for free online.

They will include the time when the event (could be speech, could be economic report etc) will take place, the currency that will affect, the impact that it has on that currency, the Previous Reading (if measured by numbers), the Forecast (what experts expect the results to be) and the Actual number.

วิเคราะห์กราฟ Forex

Unknow said...

In many cases, traders of Gold hold their trades only for a short time period. However, in some instances, the day trader may hold onto his/her position for a longer time span, such as 2 or 3 days.

เทรดทอง

Unknow said...

Unlike the past where you could only trade currency, nowadays brokers are allowed to trade in over capital market via a single forex account. It is therefore very important to choose a broker who offers broad coverage such as venturing in

การเลือกโบรกเกอร์ Forex

Unknow said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknow said...

Many brokers claim that they do not charge any fee other than the spread. However, some brokers do charge different types of fees from the clients, such as brokerage fees, commission fees, daily rollover interest, etc. Therefore, one must verify with the broker on what all charges are imposed by them.

drawdown คืออะไร

Gift Portal said...

Great to learn something new. Thanx for sharing
If you want to Send Rakhi Online this 2020
Online Rakhi Delivery yo USA
Visit Us

Unknow said...

When a trader hedges their trades they are placing more than one trade on the outcome of any two currencies they have paired up together. However, it is worth noting there are only a small number of circumstances when that is going to be financially feasible.

hedge คืออะไร

Unknow said...

There are often pros and cons associated with trading exotic currency pairs. Because they are not so widely traded, they can often be subject to higher trading fees, however when the market moves they can be subject to some wild price fluctuations (suitable for the more experienced trader).

สกุลเงินที่มีการเทรดติดอันดับ

Unknow said...

For example, you might be staking a position for a currency pair, and neither the base nor the quote currency is the same as the currency used on your account.

Margin Forex

Unknow said...

If you are interested in carry trade, you first need to identify a high-yielding and a low-yielding currency pair. Currencies like the Japanese Yen (JPY) and Swiss Franc (CHF) are considered low yielding or funding currencies. The Australian Dollar (AUD) and New Zealand Dollar (NZD) are considered high yielding currencies.

swap คืออะไร

Unknow said...

Once you have a solid routine worked out where you are waiting for the market to come to your kill zones, instead of you continually chasing the market, you take the drivers seat.

ความเชื่อผิดๆ ในตลาด Forex

Unknow said...

With market makers, as we discussed earlier, whenever a retail trader places a trade, the order doesn’t actually go out into the real Forex market.
market maker forex คือ อะไร

Unknow said...

- Give yourself staying power by buying options at or in the money, this prevents you from getting stopped out. Many traders lose not by the market direction, but because they were stopped out by a instable move, and options will give you staying power.

ไอเดียหาเงินออนไลน์

Unknow said...

By using candlestick charts and looking for candlestick patterns, we can reduce emotional trading and trade in the direction of the market, using it to our advantage.

กราฟแท่งเทียน คือ อะไร

Unknow said...

Next, we will explain the main user interface. The screenshot below shows the main MT4 windows of the user interface: the 1) “Toolbar”, 2) “Market watch”, 3) “Navigator“, 4) “Terminal” and 5) “Charts window”.
mt4 คือ

hager ali said...

شركة نقل عفش بجدة
نقل عفش بجدة
رخيص نقل عفش بجدة
شركة نقل عفش
نقل عفش بجدة
ارخص شركة نقل عفش بجدة
افضل شركة نقل عفش بجدة
افضل شركة نقل عفش بمكة
شركة نقل عفش بمكة
ارخص شركة نقل عفش بمكة
نقل عفش مكة
نقل عفش مكه رخيص

pop said...

Infinox โบรกเกอร์ Forex ผู้ให้บริการแพลตฟอร์มการเทรดสกุลเงิน mt4 xauusd ฟอเร็กซ์ ดัชนีหุ้น ทองคำ น้ำมันดิบ ฯลฯ ให้บริการลูกค้าไปแล้วหลายประเทศทั่วโลก

ทำไมถึงเทรดกราฟ Forex mt4 กับโบรกเกอร์ Infinox
ตลาด Forex เป็นตลาดการเงินที่ใหญ่ที่สุดในโลก xauusd ฟอเร็กซ์ ดัชนีหุ้น น้ำมันดิบ สามารถทำการซื้อขายได้ทั้งขาขึ้นและขาลงตลอด24ชั่วโมง โอกาสในการซื้อขายยิ่งมาก โอกาสในการทำกำไรก็ยิ่งมาก

Forex
mt4
xauusd
ข่าว forex
น้ำมันดิบ

https://www.infinox.co.th/forex/
https://www.infinox.co.th

Seo Rank Agency said...

Are you thinking about SEO Services? Seo Rank Agency is the best seo services Provider in india. We provide SEO,SMO,PPC,Web Design and Website Development services at affordable prices with 100% satisfaction.Call at 8287878854.No1 Seo services providers company in India offering the best SEO solutions to Archive top Ranking and 10x your Business sales With a team of top seo specialist india, Best Seo plans.

Unknown said...

Get the latest
Spun Polyester Yarn ,
Nylon Filament Yarn ,
and all types of Yarn with exporters/importers in India, Worldwide with quality yarn products . We have a supply

chain of Experts since years managing premium quality and good results.

Unknown said...

Interesting stuff to read. Keep it up.

Hair Salon near me

Unknown said...

Colossustex is a Delhi Based Textile Company with expertise in Cotton Yarn Suppliers In India and Get The Best Deals of Cotton Yarn In China , Cotton Yarns Also with best Import/Export Services Allover the world.

robertty said...

Leverage
คันในร่มผ้า
กระชาย
ส้มแขก
Forex
มะกรูด
มะปราง
ค่าเงินยูโร
ดอลลาร์สหรัฐ
ข่าวการเงิน

robertty said...

forex
ฟอเร็กซ์
ระบบเทรด forex
วิเคราะห์ทอง
ราคาน้ํามันพรุ่งนี้
ฟอเร็กซ์
fx
เทรด forex
xauusd
กราฟ forex